8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
All pregnancies have a risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the US general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. Available data on Prevnar 13 administered to pregnant women are insufficient to inform vaccine-associated risks in pregnancy.
A developmental toxicity study has been performed in female rabbits administered Prevnar 13 prior to mating and during gestation. Each dose was approximately 20 times the human dose. This study revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to Prevnar 13 (see 8.1 Data).
In a developmental toxicity study, female rabbits were administered Prevnar 13 by intramuscular injection twice prior to mating (17 days and 3 days prior to mating) and twice during gestation (gestation days 10 and 24), 0.5 mL/rabbit/occasion (each dose approximately 20 times the human dose). No adverse effects on pre-weaning development were observed. There were no vaccine-related fetal malformations or variations.
Data are not available to assess the effects of Prevnar 13 on the breastfed infant or on milk production/excretion. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for Prevnar 13 and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Prevnar 13 or from the underlying maternal condition. For preventive vaccines, the underlying maternal condition is susceptibility to disease prevented by the vaccine.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness of Prevnar 13 in children below the age of 6 weeks have not been established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the total number of Prevnar 13 recipients aged 50 years and older in clinical studies (N=47,907), 94.5% (45,291 of 47,907 ) were 65 years and older and 30.3 % (14,498 of 47,907) were 75 years and older [see Clinical Studies (14.1) and (14.3)].
8.6 High Risk Populations
Individuals with the diseases or conditions listed below are at increased risk of pneumococcal disease. Immunogenicity and safety data in these populations are limited.
Infants Born Prematurely
Immune responses elicited by Prevnar 13 administered on a US schedule to preterm infants have not been studied. When preterm infants (<37 weeks gestational age, N=100) were administered 4 doses of Prevnar 13 on a non-US schedule, the serotype-specific IgG antibody responses after the third and fourth dose were lower compared to responses among term infants (≥37 weeks gestational age, N=100) for some serotypes; the effectiveness of Prevnar 13 in preterm infants cannot be established from this study.
Children with Sickle Cell Disease
In an open-label, single-arm, descriptive study, 2 doses of Prevnar 13 were administered 6 months apart to children ≥6 to <18 years of age with sickle cell disease who previously received PPSV23 at least 6 months prior to enrollment. Children with a prior history of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination were excluded. For all vaccine serotypes, anti-pneumococcal opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) were higher after the first dose compared to pre-vaccination (N=95–131); OPA GMTs following the first and second dose were comparable. The effectiveness of Prevnar 13 in this specific population has not been established.
Individuals with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant
In an open-label, single-arm, descriptive study, 4 doses of Prevnar 13 were administered to subjects ≥2 years of age (range 2 to 71 years) who had received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant 3 to 6 months prior to enrollment. All subjects had a history of stable engraftment (absolute neutrophil count>1000/µL, platelet count >50,000/µL), and did not have uncontrolled graft versus host disease. The first three doses of Prevnar 13 were administered one month apart, followed by a fourth dose of Prevnar 13 six months after the third dose. Sera were obtained approximately one month after each vaccination. Immune responses (IgG GMCs) after the first dose of Prevnar 13 were numerically higher for all serotypes compared with baseline. In addition, after each subsequent dose of Prevnar 13, IgG GMCs for all serotypes were numerically higher than responses after the previous dose. A post hoc analysis of the immune responses as measured by OPA antibody assay showed the pattern of functional antibody responses to be consistent with IgG responses for each serotype. The effectiveness of Prevnar 13 in this specific population has not been established.
Individuals with HIV Infection
In an open-label, single-arm, descriptive study, 3 doses of Prevnar 13 were administered 6 months apart to HIV-infected adults ≥18 years of age (median age 48 years), with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/µL and serum HIV RNA titer <50,000 copies/mL. All subjects had been vaccinated previously with PPSV23 at least 6 months prior to enrollment. For all vaccine serotypes anti-pneumococcal OPA GMTs were numerically higher after the first dose compared to pre-vaccination (N=227–253); OPA GMTs following the first, second and third dose were generally comparable. The effectiveness of Prevnar 13 in this specific population has not been established.
In an open-label, single-arm, descriptive study, 3 doses of Prevnar 13 were administered 1 month apart to HIV-infected subjects ≥6 years of age with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/µL, and serum HIV RNA titer <50,000 copies/mL. Subjects had not previously been vaccinated with a pneumococcal vaccine. For all vaccine serotypes anti-pneumococcal OPA GMTs were numerically higher after the first dose compared to pre-vaccination (N=197–257); OPA GMTs following the first, second and third dose were generally comparable. The effectiveness of Prevnar 13 in this specific population has not been established.