8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
There are no data with the use of Toviaz in pregnant women to inform a drug associated risk for birth defects or miscarriage. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of fesoterodine to pregnant mice and rabbits during organogenesis resulted in fetotoxicity at maternal exposures that were 6 and 3 times respectively the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 8 mg/day, based on AUC (see Data). The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population are unknown. However, in the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.
No dose-related teratogenicity was observed in reproduction studies performed in mice and rabbits. In mice at 6 to 27 times the expected exposure at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 8 mg based on AUC (75 mg/kg/day, oral), increased resorptions and decreased live fetuses were observed. One fetus with cleft palate was observed at each dose (15, 45, and 75 mg/kg/day), at an incidence within the background historical range. In rabbits treated at 3 to 11 times the MRHD (27 mg/kg/day, oral), incompletely ossified sternebrae (retardation of bone development) and reduced survival were observed in fetuses. In rabbits at 9 to 11 times the MRHD (4.5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous), maternal toxicity and incompletely ossified sternebrae were observed in fetuses (at an incidence within the background historical range). In rabbits at 3 times the MRHD (1.5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous), decreased maternal food consumption in the absence of any fetal effects was observed. Oral administration of 30 mg/kg/day fesoterodine to mice in a pre- and post-natal development study resulted in decreased body weight of the dams and delayed ear opening of the pups. No effects were noted on mating and reproduction of the F1 dams or on the F2 offspring.
There is no information on the presence of fesoterodine in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for Toviaz and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Toviaz or from the underlying maternal condition.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The pharmacokinetics of fesoterodine have not been evaluated in pediatric patients.
The safety and effectiveness of Toviaz in pediatric patients have not been established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
No dose adjustment is recommended for the elderly. The pharmacokinetics of fesoterodine are not significantly influenced by age.
Of 1567 patients who received Toviaz 4 mg/day or 8 mg/day in the Phase 2 and 3, placebo-controlled, efficacy and safety studies, 515 (33%) were 65 years of age or older, and 140 (9%) were 75 years of age or older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between patients younger than 65 years of age and those 65 years of age or older in these studies; however, the incidence of antimuscarinic adverse events, including dry mouth, constipation, dyspepsia, increase in residual urine, dizziness (at 8 mg only) and urinary tract infection, was higher in patients 75 years of age and older as compared to younger patients [see Clinical Studies (14) and Adverse Reactions (6)].
8.6 Renal Impairment
In patients with severe renal impairment (CLCR <30 mL/min), Cmax and AUC are increased 2.0- and 2.3-fold, respectively. Doses of Toviaz greater than 4 mg are not recommended in patients with severe renal impairment. In patients with mild or moderate renal impairment (CLCR ranging from 30–80 mL/min), Cmax and AUC of the active metabolite are increased up to 1.5- and 1.8-fold, respectively, as compared to healthy subjects. No dose adjustment is recommended in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) and Dosage and Administration (2)].
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C) have not been studied; therefore Toviaz is not recommended for use in these patients. In patients with moderate (Child-Pugh B) hepatic impairment, Cmax and AUC of the active metabolite are increased 1.4- and 2.1-fold, respectively, as compared to healthy subjects. No dose adjustment is recommended in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) and Dosage and Administration (2)].
No dose adjustment is recommended based on gender. The pharmacokinetics of fesoterodine are not significantly influenced by gender.